Emerging technologies in wearable sensors

This aim of this article is to highlight some current challenges and emerging solutions in wearable sensors. Currently, investigation efforts are aimed at expanding the application scenarios and at translating early developments from basic research to widespread adoption in personal health monitoring for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This translation requires addressing several old and new challenges that are summarized in this article.  The special issue “Emerging technologies in wearable sensors” includes four selected contributions from leading researchers, exploring the topic from different perspectives. The aim is to provide the readers with a solid and timely overall vision of the field and with some recent examples of wearable sensors, exploring new research avenues.

For full article see link below;

Emerging technologies in wearable sensors – PMC (nih.gov)

Access to AED’s act in the USA

Congressman Higgins (Western NY) Announces Legislation Improving Access to AEDs

Introducing the Access to AEDs Act is a bill to support life-saving response to sudden cardiac arrest in student athletes. This bill was introduced following Damar Hamlin’s On-Field Cardiac Arrest in January of this year.

If passed, the legislation would create a federal grant program for schools to purchase, maintain, and provide training for automated external defibrillators and to create athlete screening programs, says the office of Rep. Brian Higgins (D-N.Y.). Funding can also be used to purchase and maintain AEDs, replace outdated CPR and AED equipment, and provide training to students, staff, and related sports volunteers.

Additionally, it can be used to develop Cardiac Emergency Response Plans and assist school athletic departments in creating heart screening programs for student athletes. The proposed legislation, would make AEDs and CPR training more accessible elementary and secondary schools across the country. Both public and private schools are included in this act.


For full press release see link below;

Congressman Higgins Announces Legislation Improving Access to AEDs | U.S. Representative (house.gov)

What Are Defibrillator Pads

What Are Defibrillator Pads

Defibrillator pads are adhesive electrodes that are placed on a person’s chest to deliver an electrical shock to the heart when it is not beating effectively.  Defibrillator pads are an essential part of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) to treat a sudden cardiac arrest emergency. These adhesive pads are placed on the bare chest of a patient and are usually placed on the upper right and lower left sides of the chest, which allows for transmission of an electric current to the heart that can restore its normal rhythm. Defibrillator pads are designed to be easy to use, with clear instructions for placement and operation.

Once the defibrillator pads are placed at the specified location, an AED will monitor the heart rhythm of the patient and diagnose whether a defibrillator shock is required or not. Defibrillator pads are essential to create a connection between the Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) patient’s body and the AED

It’s important to note that defibrillator pads are not the same as regular adhesive electrodes that are used for monitoring heart activity. Defibrillator pads are specifically designed to deliver a high-energy shock to the heart, while monitoring electrodes are used to track the heart’s activity and do not deliver a shock.

Why are AEDs used?

AEDs are used to treat the patient of SCA which is a leading cause of cardiac death throughout the world. SCA is the result of irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that can cause the heart to suddenly stop beating. SCA is a serious health issue that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 17.9 million people die from cardiovascular diseases, including SCA, each year.

How Do Automated External Defibrillator Pads Work?

Defibrillator pads work by allowing the AED machine to detect abnormal heart rhythms and provide a pathway for electrical current to pass between the pads and the patient. In layman’s terms, AEDs are lifesavers. They work by sending an electric shock to re-align the heart rhythm to normal allowing it to pump blood efficiently again.

AEDs come with accessories that must be maintained and do expire over time. These are often referred to as the AED disposables and are made up of electrode pads and the AED battery. Just like other parts of an external defibrillator, AED pads also have great importance.

About Intelesens;

Intelesens is a leading design development & manufacturer of these AED pads, otherwise known as defibrillator disposable accessories. We manufacture the longest shelf life on the market, currently at 5.5 years. Manufactured to the highest quality standards, we are proud of our strong technical and production expertise built around our customer’s exacting needs and requirements. Based on our customer requirements, we can develop and manufacture a range of electrode types.


Defibrillators (AEDs and PADs) – how and why to use them | British Heart Foundation – BHF

What Are Defibrillator Pads | aedusa.com

World Health Organization (WHO)

Why It’s Important for People with Heart Conditions to Own an AED

Those who have a history of heart surgery or have had a heart device implanted, the chances of experiencing a cardiac emergency may increase. That’s why it’s important to have an Automated External Defibrillator on hand in case of a medical emergency.

An AED is a portable device that can be used to deliver an electric shock to the heart in the event of a cardiac arrest. It’s designed to be used by trained responders in a medical emergency, and most models are easy to operate with clear instructions and visual prompts.

Having an AED on hand can be a life-saving tool in the event of a cardiac emergency. Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death, but early defibrillation can greatly increase the chances of survival. In fact, studies have shown that for every minute that defibrillation is delayed, the chances of survival decrease by about 10%.

Owning an AED not only has the potential to save a life, but it can also provide peace of mind and a sense of security for individuals and their families. Knowing that you have an AED available in the event of an emergency can give you the confidence to take action and potentially make a difference in a critical situation.

There are different types of AEDs available on the market, and it’s important to select one that is appropriate for your needs and budget. Some factors to consider when choosing an AED include:

The type of battery or power source,

The size and weight of the device,

Other additional features or accessories.

To ensure that you are prepared to use an AED in the event of an emergency, it’s a good idea to receive training or access educational materials on how to use the device and recognize the signs of a cardiac emergency. This can help you feel more confident and prepared to use the AED if needed.

In conclusion, having an AED on hand is an important consideration for individuals with a history of heart surgery or a heart device implanted. It can be a life-saving tool in the event of a cardiac emergency, and owning an AED can provide peace of mind and a sense of security for individuals and their families. Be sure to choose the right AED for your needs and consider receiving training or accessing educational materials to help you understand how to use the device and recognize the signs of a cardiac emergency.

Why It’s Important for People with Heart Conditions to Own an AED (aedbrands.com)

Factors to Consider when using an AED

Factors to Consider when using an AED


When treating a victim that has gone into cardiac arrest there are a few considerations to be made when it comes to using an AED (automated external defibrillator).

These considerations need to be made on

  • Paediatric patients
  • Wet or sweaty patients
  • Patients with a hairy chest
  • Patients with a medication patch
  • Patients with a pacemaker or implantable defibrillator


If In doubt, start performing chest compressions and have someone contact emergency medical services via phone before you deliver an electric shock.  If there are obvious signs of a cardiac arrest, acting fast will increase the patient’s chance of survival—no matter what other factors are present.


Treating a Paediatric Patient


Cardiac arrest in children is rare but still a possibility. Child patients require a reduced electrical shock if they are under eight years old or weigh less than 55 pounds. To cater to paediatric patients, some external defibrillators have a special paediatric setting, and others come with child electrode pads (either included with the device or sold separately).

For a child under age eight, adjusting an AED can be seen in example such as the below;

  • HeartSine Samaritan PAD 350P. Unplug the adult electrode Pad-Pak and plug in the child electrode pads (sold separately). Follow the audio prompts and press the shock button when directed.


If no child pads are available, and your device doesn’t have a child setting, you can use standard adult pads. However, the chest placement is different for paediatric patients. One pad should be placed in the centre of the chest, and the other in the centre of the back. Use this placement for paediatric patients, whether you use adult or child pads.

See image below for reference;

For an infant under 12 months, a manual defibrillator is more appropriate than an AED (automated defibrillator) —especially if no paediatric pads are available. However, it’s much better to use a portable defibrillator (with paediatric or adult pads) than to do nothing at all.

Treating a Sweaty or Water-Submerged Patient


Special considerations when using an AED with a patient also apply when the patient is wet or damp from sweat. Because water is an excellent conductor of electricity, the power of the shock would be dispersed across the patient’s body and be less effective where it’s needed the most.

When treating a victim of cardiac arrest who is wet or damp, remove them from the water (if they are immersed) and take them to a dry place. Dry off their chest area as much as possible and apply the electrode pads. There is no need to completely dry the patient from head to toe as time is of the essence, focus only on completely drying the chest area, specifically the area between the pads.

The most important factor is that the victim’s chest be dry so that the shock is delivered straight to the heart. If the victim is in a puddle or lying on a wet area of the floor but their chest is dry, simply move them away from the water and use the defibrillator as normal.


Treating a Patient with a Hairy Chest


When a cardiac arrest victim has excessive chest hair, it may be difficult for the electrode pad to analyse their heart rhythm and deliver an appropriately timed shock. This is because the hair would lift the pad up and off the patient’s chest, preventing full contact with the skin. The hair would also make it more difficult for the gel on the electrode pad to adhere to the skin.

There are three main solutions to the issue of chest hair, as recommended by the American Heart Association’s Basic Life Support Manual:  BLS Provider Manual eBook (heart.org)

  1. Shave the hair off the area where the patch will be applied. It is sensible to keep a disposable razor stored with every AED specifically for this purpose. Most first-aid kids and first-responder kits should include at least one razor.
  2. If you don’t have a razor and the device continues to prompt you with “check pads,” push down hard on the electrode pads to increase conductivity. Then remove your hands when instructed to “stand clear.”
  3. If the machine still doesn’t respond, you can strip the pad quickly off the patient’s chest to remove some of the hair. Then apply a new set of pads. Only do this if you have extra pads on hand.


Treating a Patient with a Transdermal Medication Patch


Transdermal medication patches have been used since the 1970’s to deliver active medication, such as a hormone or nicotine, at a gradual rate through the skin. In the case of a cardiac arrest, medication patches present a burn hazard when using an external automated defibrillator if the shock is delivered over the patch.

Before applying an AED, remove the medication patch and wipe any sticky residue off the patient’s skin. It’s a good idea to wear gloves when removing the patch so that the medication is not absorbed through your skin.


Treating a Patient with a Pacemaker or Implantable Defibrillator


Pacemakers and implantable defibrillators make up the last category of special considerations when using an AED. If you place an AED directly over a pacemaker or defibrillator, the device may block the delivery of the shock. Instead, place the electrode pad a few inches lower or try an anterior-posterior (front-and-back) pad placement instead.

You can usually tell if a cardiac arrest victim has an implanted pacemaker or defibrillator because they will have a scar on either side of their upper chest or abdomen with a hard lump the size of a deck of playing cards or smaller. Most often this will be near the heart, on the left side of the chest, in which case it will not interfere with the standard pad placements. If they have suffered a sudden cardiac arrest, it’s almost certain that the device has stopped working. Don’t worry about damaging the device as this can be replaced.


With a few simple adjustments, you can use an automated external defibrillator on the patients mentioned above, as you would on any other. Make sure your AED is equipped with paediatric pads, a razor, and a pair of gloves and you should be ready for anything.


Special Considerations When Using an AED Device (aedleader.com)

Optimum method for defibrillation Pad Placement

Optimum method for defibrillation Pad Placement
In the event of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), the heart is unable to pump the blood that is needed to the body’s vital organs. The heart must be shocked using an automated external defibrillator (AED) to interrupt the irregular activity and allow the heart to resume a normal cardiac rhythm.
Electrodes, otherwise known as pads, adhere to a victim’s chest and connect to the defibrillator. The pad allows the AED to determine the heart’s rhythm, and if necessary, conduct current to the heart.
Placing AED pads correctly is essential for ensuring that the defibrillator works properly and allows for the most direct and unobstructed path of transthoracic current (TTC). The correct placement varies between children and adults, though, and there are some unique situations where the general rules don’t apply.
Figure 1: Typical Child and Adult AED pad example
Figure 2: Different placement options for AEDs on adults

Difference between Anterior-posterior vs Anterolateral


There are two basic positions for AED pad placement:

  • Anterior-posterior (or “front-and-back”) placement: One on the front and one on the back.
  • Anterolateral placement: One on the right side of the chest and one on the lower part of the left chest wall (or a few centimetres below the left armpit, over the ribcage)


The first position is usually used on children, and the second position is used on adults. However, an anterior-posterior placement can be used on adults as well with slightly different pad placement. Instead of placing the defibrillator pads on the centre of the chest and back, place one pad just below the left nipple and the second pad on the left side of the back, directly below the scapula or wing bone.

Pad Placement on an Adult
According to experts, older adults are the group most likely to suffer from cardiac arrest. Although most AEDs have a child setting or are compatible with child pads, these devices typically come equipped with adult pads as the default accessory.
Generally, defibrillator kits will tell you where to place the pads on adults using both audio prompts and/or visual diagrams. However, the general rule is to position one pad over the upper right side, otherwise known as anterior-lateral of the patient’s chest, and the other on the lower left side of the patient’s chest (as shown in figure 2). This creates a pathway through the heart muscle that allows the device to shock the heart into action. Alternatively, you may choose to place pads in an anterior-posterior position, or front-back (figure 2).
Pad Placement on a Child
Children suffering from sudden cardiac arrest are treated in the same fashion as adults but require less energy or shock during defibrillation. The current to be delivered must be reduced, using specially designed paediatric pads.
The American Heart Association recommends that for children under 8 years old, ideally use paediatric pads so that the pads do not overlap during defibrillation. To ensure safe paediatric defibrillation, the best location for pads is the anterior-posterior (front-back) configuration (see figure 3). One electrode is placed on the front (anterior) chest wall and the other on the centre of the child’s back (posterior). They also state that anterior-lateral placement or anterior-posterior placement may be reasonable to defibrillate paediatric victims.
Figure 3: Pad placement for children
Exceptional circumstances
Below are a few things to look out for and what to do when you come across chest hair, a medicated patch, or wet skin.
Chest Hair
If the patient’s chest is quite hairy, the pads might not stick to their skin properly, jeopardising the electric shock. Before placing the pads on the patient, quickly use a razor to shave the hair where the pads will be placed. Most AED first responder kits include razors.
Wet Skin
Electricity and water do not mix, and neither should water and an AED. If the patient is wet, put them on a dry surface, remove their wet clothing, and get the chest dry before applying the pads.
Medicated Patch
AED pads should not be placed on top of a medicated patch, because the patch could make the electrical shock less effective. Before applying the pads, carefully remove the patch (wearing gloves) and quickly wipe the area with alcohol or a towelette.
To Conclude
While there are a few different things to keep in mind, AED pad placement will follow only one of two patterns—front and side or front and back. In both cases, the most appropriate position for the AED pads will be illustrated on the pads themselves and all you need to do is follow the electrode pad placement instructions. You can then deploy the AED, knowing that the shock you are administering could help in the victims’ chances of survival.

The Importance of knowing how to use an AED

The Importance of knowing How to Use an AED


In our two previous posts we have discussed both the Importance of AEDs and Importance of how to access them.

Now we delve into the Importance of knowing how use an Automated External Defibrillator.


The first step is to determine whether a defibrillator is actually needed. An automated external defibrillator should only be used on someone suffering sudden cardiac arrest, presenting as unconscious and not breathing. It should never be used on a patient suffering a heart attack, who is still conscious and breathing. If a person is suffering from cardiac arrest, they’ll be unresponsive without a palpable pulse, and not breathing or gasping for air.


Before using the AED

If someone goes into cardiac arrest, it’s important to call emergency services immediately. If multiple bystanders are available, have someone else call 9-1-1 for example in the USA and retrieve the defibrillator while you perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Otherwise, if no one else is around, call 9-1-1 yourself and turn on the AED.

Before using the device, the user must ensure that the scene is free from any potential accident-causing material. For example, if the sudden cardiac arrest is caused by electrocution, make sure that there’s no live wire nearby.

During cardiac arrest, the heart does not pump blood to the other organs, so organ failure can occur in just minutes. That’s why it’s important to start emergency procedures immediately while someone else calls for help. Every minute is critical.

Here are the simple steps to follow:

  1. Confirm that the patient is experiencing cardiac arrest (no breathing, unconscious).
  2. Turn on the AED and follow the audio or visual instructions relayed by the machine.
  3. Ensure the victims chest if exposed. Wipe it dry to ensure that the device sticks well to the victim’s skin.
  4. Attach the AED pads to the defibrillator and plug in the connector.
  5. All should stand clear of the patient at this point.
  6. Push the button to activate the heart rhythm analysis.
  7. If the AED device notifies you to send the electric shock, push the button to initiate the action.
  8. After delivering the shock or if shock is not recommended, administer CPR. And continue to follow the prompts from the machine.
  9. After two minutes of CPR, the AED may again prompt you to stop CPR to analyse, potentially resulting in having to administer additional shocks. Continue to follow the AED prompts, with two minutes of CPR between each analysis, until emergency services arrive.




Remember, an AED can save lives. That being said, learning the basic knowledge of how to administer CPR and other first aid techniques would always be an advantage in saving someone else’s life, until a professional medic arrives.







The Importance of Access to AED’s

The Importance of Access to AED’s

If there is a situation when time is most definitely of the essence it is during a Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA). Cardiac arrest is the third major cause of death in the U.S., and not all people who experience sudden cardiac arrest will survive. But, having better access to an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) outside of hospital settings, will make a huge difference.


A SCA occurs due to an abrupt or sudden disturbance in the heart’s rhythm which results in the heart not beating or beating too little to keep a person alive. This life threatening arrhythmia or abnormal heart rhythm is called Ventricular Fibrillation (VF). In these instances, the timely use of an AED and proper application of Cardiac Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) can increase the chances of survival by more than 40% i.  Additionally, AED use combined with CPR increases the life-saving chances in an SCA sufferer by 75% as compared to using CPR alone. When someone suffers SCA, the survival rate declines by up to 10% with every minute that he or she is left unattended ii.


A SCA can happen to anybody, anywhere, and at any time, and having easy access to AED is critical in saving lives. Because of this, the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has mandated  for greater access to AEDs in public places such as airports, community centers, schools, offices, and of course, medical facilities.


To reinforce this mandate, the American Medical Association (AMA) also advises business owners to install AED devices in private and public structures where people converge, jobsites included iii.


The good thing with an AED device is that it’s made for anyone to use, not just a medic. All you need to do is open it, read the simple instructions and administer to a person in need. This way, colleagues at work, friends, or any layperson will be equipped to use an AED once they follow the instructions carefully that accompany a defibrillator.


This arms anyone with skills to save a life in the event of a cardiac arrest. While  prior training is not necessary, it does help to be familiar with how an AED works and how to give CPR. This is because, in an emergency situation, you may be nervous using an AED for the first time.



Part 3 coming soon: The Importance of knowing how to use an AED



i www.ghp-news.com

ii Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation

iii American Medical Association


The Importance of AED’s

The importance of AED’s (Automated External Defibrillator’s)

According to the WHO (World Health Organization), coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, claiming the lives of more than 7 million sufferers every year. Similarly, the American Heart Association says that up to 475,000 Americans die of cardiac arrests in any given year. Out of that 475,000, more than 350,000 of these incidents are outside of hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA’s), with 90% of these reported to be fatal.


These alarming statistics have urged the state and federal governments to require public establishments such as workplaces, shopping centers, and other places with high traffic to have access to AED’s. The National Safety Council surmises that up to 40,000 deaths due to cardiac arrests can be prevented if this medical equipment were more accessible to the public.


There’s no doubt that AED’s can save lives. With that being said, what is an AED and what does it do?


What does an AED do? 


You might have seen this medical equipment in public places; an encased tool located conspicuously and in plain sight. Unlike a first aid kit, an automated external defibrillator is what you need in tackling a more serious health emergency like sudden cardiac arrest (SCA).


This serious health problem is often confused with a heart attack. For those who are unaware, a heart attack is caused by a blockage in the heart’s blood vessels, preventing proper blood flow and causing the heart to stop. A sudden cardiac arrest, on the other hand, is an electrical malfunction, causing an erratic blood pumping action. An abnormal heart function can trigger loss of consciousness and breathing difficulties.


SCA can affect anyone regardless of age, and there are rarely any warning signs. Fortunately, an AED device can be used to check a person’s heart rate and provide an electric shock to correct the malfunction, if necessary. This medical device can save lives by detecting two abnormal heart rhythm functions: Ventricular Fibrillation and Ventricular Tachycardia. Once it detects abnormal heart rate, it notifies the user to send an electric shock to restore its normal rhythm.


This medical device may look complicated, but it’s relatively easy to use. Apart from monitoring heart rates and delivering an electric shock, it also provides rescuers with instructions on how to perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) properly.


CPR is defined as a lifesaving first aid procedure applied to a person whose heartbeat has stopped. It can also be performed in people who have stopped breathing, for instance, those who have been saved from drowning. The procedure aims to restore the flow of oxygen towards the brain and the body’s other vital organs.


Part 2 coming soon: The Importance of Access to AED’s