Factors affecting public access defibrillator placement decisions in the United Kingdom : A survey study

Aim: This study aimed to understand current community PAD placement strategies and identify factors which influence PAD placement decision-making in the United Kingdom (UK).

Methods: Individuals, groups and organisations involved in PAD placement in the UK were invited to participate in an online survey collecting demographic information, facilitators and barriers to community PAD placement and information used to decide where a PAD is installed in their experiences. Survey responses were analysed through descriptive statistical analysis and thematic analysis.

Results: There were 106 included responses. Distance from another PAD (66%) and availability of a power source (63%) were most frequently used when respondents are deciding where best to install a PAD and historical occurrence of cardiac arrest (29%) was used the least. Three main themes were identified influencing PAD placement: (i) the relationship between the community and PADs emphasising community engagement to create buy-in; (ii) practical barriers and facilitators to PAD placement including securing consent, powering the cabinet, accessibility, security, funding, and guardianship; and (iii) ‘risk assessment’ methods to estimate the need for PADs including areas of high footfall, population density and type, areas experiencing health inequalities, areas with delayed ambulance response and current PAD provision.

Conclusion: Decision-makers want to install PADs in locations that maximise impact and benefit to the community, but this can be constrained by numerous social and infrastructural factors. The best location to install a PAD depends on local context; work is required to determine how to overcome barriers to optimal community PAD placement.


For full article see link below;

Factors affecting public access defibrillator placement decisions in the United Kingdom: A survey study – PMC (nih.gov)

March is AED Maintenance Month!

March is AED Maintenance Month!

Maintaining your defibrillator is as important as having one

With the survival rate of sudden cardiac arrest being below 10%, the emphasis to have Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDs) in all places where we live, work, and play is becoming increasingly important. It is equally important to remember that having a maintenance plan in place will ensure all AEDs are ready to help save a life when and if needed. When a defibrillator is deployed during an emergency, it is crucial the AED is ready to be used. The outcome for the patient could be even more devastating if the AED was available but not functioning properly.


Proper maintenance of the AED is essential to ensure that it works correctly when needed. Here are some tips on how to maintain an AED:


Read the user manual: To maintain properly functioning AED, read the manual thoroughly. This will help you understand the device’s functions and how to use it correctly. It will also get you familiar with the manufacturer name when needing to reorder the disposables such as batteries & pads.


Regularly check the battery and electrode pads: Check the AEDs battery and electrode pads regularly. Replace them immediately if they are expired, damaged, or low on charge.


Perform self-tests: AEDs have a self-test feature that checks the device’s internal components and battery charge. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for performing regular self-tests.


Keep the AED clean: Wipe the AED with a clean, dry cloth to remove dirt, dust, or debris. Avoid using harsh chemicals or solvents that can damage the device.


Store the AED correctly: Store the AED in a dry, cool place. Avoid exposing the device to extreme temperatures or moisture as may inhibit the AED’s performance.


Keep the AED accessible: Place the AED in an easily accessible location that is visible and known to everyone. Ensure that it is not ever blocked by any obstructions, so it is clearly available when an emergency arises.


Train your staff: Ensure that your staff is trained in AED use and maintenance. Regular training can help them respond quickly and confidently in an emergency. Ensure it is part of the onboarding process when a new team member comes on board. You should also appoint someone to carry out monthly checks and have these checks logged.


Below is a checklist when doing an AED Maintenance check:

• Is the Active Status Indicator light on your AED flashing green?
• Are the AED pads plugged in and ready for use?
• Does the AED appear to be undamaged and ready for use?
• Is the AED free of chirping and warning notifications?
• Are the AED pads within their usable date?
• Is the AED battery within its usable date?

If the answer to any of these questions is no, call Customer Service/AED manufacturer to determine what the issue might be with the AED.


By following these tips, you can maintain your AED in good condition and ensure that it is always ready to use when needed.



Maintaining your defib is as Important as having one – Eiremed.ie

Guide to Defibrillator Maintenance and upkeep | St John Ambulance (sja.org.uk)

How To Maintain Your AED | AED Defibrillator Maintenance (defibtech.com)

What Are Defibrillator Pads

What Are Defibrillator Pads

Defibrillator pads are adhesive electrodes that are placed on a person’s chest to deliver an electrical shock to the heart when it is not beating effectively.  Defibrillator pads are an essential part of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) to treat a sudden cardiac arrest emergency. These adhesive pads are placed on the bare chest of a patient and are usually placed on the upper right and lower left sides of the chest, which allows for transmission of an electric current to the heart that can restore its normal rhythm. Defibrillator pads are designed to be easy to use, with clear instructions for placement and operation.

Once the defibrillator pads are placed at the specified location, an AED will monitor the heart rhythm of the patient and diagnose whether a defibrillator shock is required or not. Defibrillator pads are essential to create a connection between the Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) patient’s body and the AED

It’s important to note that defibrillator pads are not the same as regular adhesive electrodes that are used for monitoring heart activity. Defibrillator pads are specifically designed to deliver a high-energy shock to the heart, while monitoring electrodes are used to track the heart’s activity and do not deliver a shock.

Why are AEDs used?

AEDs are used to treat the patient of SCA which is a leading cause of cardiac death throughout the world. SCA is the result of irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias) that can cause the heart to suddenly stop beating. SCA is a serious health issue that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 17.9 million people die from cardiovascular diseases, including SCA, each year.

How Do Automated External Defibrillator Pads Work?

Defibrillator pads work by allowing the AED machine to detect abnormal heart rhythms and provide a pathway for electrical current to pass between the pads and the patient. In layman’s terms, AEDs are lifesavers. They work by sending an electric shock to re-align the heart rhythm to normal allowing it to pump blood efficiently again.

AEDs come with accessories that must be maintained and do expire over time. These are often referred to as the AED disposables and are made up of electrode pads and the AED battery. Just like other parts of an external defibrillator, AED pads also have great importance.

About Intelesens;

Intelesens is a leading design development & manufacturer of these AED pads, otherwise known as defibrillator disposable accessories. We manufacture the longest shelf life on the market, currently at 5.5 years. Manufactured to the highest quality standards, we are proud of our strong technical and production expertise built around our customer’s exacting needs and requirements. Based on our customer requirements, we can develop and manufacture a range of electrode types.


Defibrillators (AEDs and PADs) – how and why to use them | British Heart Foundation – BHF

What Are Defibrillator Pads | aedusa.com

World Health Organization (WHO)

Why It’s Important for People with Heart Conditions to Own an AED

Those who have a history of heart surgery or have had a heart device implanted, the chances of experiencing a cardiac emergency may increase. That’s why it’s important to have an Automated External Defibrillator on hand in case of a medical emergency.

An AED is a portable device that can be used to deliver an electric shock to the heart in the event of a cardiac arrest. It’s designed to be used by trained responders in a medical emergency, and most models are easy to operate with clear instructions and visual prompts.

Having an AED on hand can be a life-saving tool in the event of a cardiac emergency. Cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death, but early defibrillation can greatly increase the chances of survival. In fact, studies have shown that for every minute that defibrillation is delayed, the chances of survival decrease by about 10%.

Owning an AED not only has the potential to save a life, but it can also provide peace of mind and a sense of security for individuals and their families. Knowing that you have an AED available in the event of an emergency can give you the confidence to take action and potentially make a difference in a critical situation.

There are different types of AEDs available on the market, and it’s important to select one that is appropriate for your needs and budget. Some factors to consider when choosing an AED include:

The type of battery or power source,

The size and weight of the device,

Other additional features or accessories.

To ensure that you are prepared to use an AED in the event of an emergency, it’s a good idea to receive training or access educational materials on how to use the device and recognize the signs of a cardiac emergency. This can help you feel more confident and prepared to use the AED if needed.

In conclusion, having an AED on hand is an important consideration for individuals with a history of heart surgery or a heart device implanted. It can be a life-saving tool in the event of a cardiac emergency, and owning an AED can provide peace of mind and a sense of security for individuals and their families. Be sure to choose the right AED for your needs and consider receiving training or accessing educational materials to help you understand how to use the device and recognize the signs of a cardiac emergency.

Why It’s Important for People with Heart Conditions to Own an AED (aedbrands.com)

Socioeconomic factors and outcomes from exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in high school student-athletes in the USA

Socioeconomic factors and outcomes from exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in high school student-athletes in the USA

It has been hypothesised that the minority student-athletes have a lower survival rate from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) than non-minority student-athletes. The below study examined the relationship between high school indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) and survival in student-athletes with exercise-related Sudden Cardiac Arrest.



High school student-athletes in the USA with exercise-related SCA on school campuses were prospectively identified from 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2018 by the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research. High school indicators of SES included the following: median household and family income, proportion of students on free/reduced lunch and percent minority students. Resuscitation details included witnessed arrest, presence of an athletic trainer, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of an on-site automated external defibrillator (AED). The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Differences in survival were analysed using risk ratios (RR) and univariate general log-binomial regression models.


The study concluded that minority student-athletes with exercise-related SCA on high school campuses have lower survival rates than white non-Hispanic athletes, but this difference is not fully explained by SES markers of the school.


See link to full study below;


Socioeconomic factors and outcomes from exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in high school student-athletes in the USA – PMC (nih.gov)



What we can learn from Damar Hamlin’s cardiac arrest

What we can learn from Damar Hamlin’s cardiac arrest


The shocking collapse of Buffalo Bills safety Damar Hamlin on Monday 02 Jan has renewed concerns about the dangers of American football.

Hamlin’s cardiac arrest highlights the need to make automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) readily accessible in all sports facilities, especially where youth sports are played. The scary moment occurred after Hamlin, 24, apparently slammed his chest into the shoulder of Cincinnati Bengals wide receiver Tee Higgins. Hamlin stood up briefly after the tackle before collapsing on the field. His heart had stopped.

Medical staff members rushed to perform chest compressions and used an AED to shock his heart. According to a statement from the Bills, Hamlin’s heartbeat was restored on the field. An ambulance took him to the hospital, where he remains in critical condition.

Details are still emerging about Hamlin’s medical circumstances. The most likely explanation is that he suffered from commotio cordis, a very rare but serious condition after blunt trauma to the chest. If the impact is strong enough and occurs at a specific moment between heartbeats, it can send the heart into an erratic, disorganized rhythm called ventricular fibrillation. Without immediate treatment, ventricular fibrillation is fatal. Once the heart stops pumping blood, oxygen no longer reaches vital organs.

CPR can buy time by manually compressing the heart to pump blood, but what’s needed is to shock the heart back into a normal rhythm. In Hamlin’s case, the medical team arrived on the field within several seconds of his collapse. He received CPR right away, and luckily an AED was available, along with trained personnel, to deliver the shock. While we don’t yet know his prognosis, the rapid intervention gave him the best chance of survival and recovery.


See link to full article below;




Does modifying electrode placement of the 12 lead ECG matter in healthy subjects?

Does modifying electrode placement of the 12 lead ECG matter in healthy subjects?


Limb electrodes for the 12 lead ECG are routinely placed on the torso during exercise stress testing or when limbs are clinically inaccessible. However, it is unclear whether such electrode modification produces ECG changes in healthy male or female subjects that are clinically important according to the 2009 AHA, ACCF, HRS guidelines. This study measured whether ECG modification produced clinically important or false positive ECG changes.


Click below for full study:


Does modifying electrode placement of the 12 lead ECG matter in healthy subjects? – PubMed (nih.gov)

Does modifying electrode placement of the 12 lead ECG matter in healthy subjects? – International Journal of Cardiology



6 Key considerations when choosing an Electrode Partner

Key considerations when choosing an electrode partner.  There are six major factors to consider.  
  1. Good Cultural fit
  2. Trust and reliability
  3. Proven industry experience
  4. Extensive design, development and manufacturing capabilities
  5. Robust quality management system
  6. Listen to your own instinct
1. Good Cultural Fit   ·       Culture has crucial role in shaping behaviour in organisations   ·       It is so important that the prospective partner has an organisational culture and values that are similar to yours   ·       There are several factors that can contribute to a company’s culture such as company vision, core values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits   ·       With these factors in mind, choose a partner that fits with your ethos to ensure a successful partnership   ·       Get to know them – build a relationship  
Your relationship usually lasts for the entire lifecycle of your product so needs to be right  
2. Trust & Reliability ·       Establishing trust and accountability is key to a truly collaborative partnership   ·       Both parties need to have complete trust and confidence in each other’s capabilities, processes and structures   ·       Trust is driven by transparency and accountability on both sides   ·       Trust is not given, but must be earned  
  Establishing trust and accountability is key to a truly collaborative partnership
3. Proven Industry Experience ·       Does the potential partner have a track record in doing work you want done for you – be it design, development and/or manufacturing   ·       How long have they been in business?   ·       What type of products have they experience in manufacturing?   ·       What are their current assets and equipment?   ·       Are they on Approved Vendor Lists (AVLs) for a broad range of partners?    
Does experience cover all stages of the process from concept development to manufacturing?  
4. Design,          Development &                Manufacturing      capabilities  
  • Do they have the expertise and capabilities required for your particular project?
  • Who is on the team and how experienced are they?
  ·       Do their engineers follow all standard testing methodologies and use the correct test equipment for part qualifications?   ·       Ask for customer testimonials or speak to a current customer with their permission   ·       Have they experience in picking up a project at various stages of its development?  
  • Do they have a documented product development process?
Do they have end-to-end process expertise?
5. Robust Quality Management System
  • Is the company ISO 13485 certified?
  • Are products designed to BS EN 60601-2-4?
  • Do they meet biocompatibility standards ISO 10993-5 and ISO 10993-10?
  • Are they RoHS and REACH compliant?
  • Do they have experience in CE marking, FDA registration?
  • Who is their registered accreditation body?
  • Request their quality manual, procedures and certificates
  • Performing a quality system audit should provide an accurate picture of compliance
Quality is one of the most important factors as a focus on quality will ensure product safety and save you both time and money in the long run
6. Listen to your own instinct ·       Ask yourself, do you like them, do you enjoy working with them, do you respect them?   ·       Do they respect you – do they turn up for meetings on-time, prepared   ·       Do they want your business?   ·       Would you be happy to work with them for a significantly long time?   ·       Do you think they would go the extra mile for you and your project?     ·       Do members respond and provide solutions to your challenges?  
Go visit them before handing over your precious project  
AND What to do when you visit the site? ·       Meet the project team to discuss the next steps and start dates   ·       Ask lots of challenging questions to see how different team     ·       Meet the production, development staff – these are often the most insightful of people to meet   ·       Make sure the design, development and manufacturing standards (technology, processes, cleanliness etc.) meet your expectations
      Your Partner of Choice   Based on our experience and expertise, we at Intelesens feel that we tick all the right boxes when it comes to being your partner for your project.  Whether your project is a large manufacturing project or a development and design project, we would love to hear from you.   About Intelesens   Intelesens, founded in 2000, is a specialist manufacturer of defibrillator and ECG electrodes based in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We have created a flexible partnership approach to developing, validating and manufacturing ECG and defibrillation electrodes, tailored to meet our client’s exacting requirements. We work with a wide range of international clients, from startup companies developing initial concept designs to contract production for well-established multi-national providers. We have the experience, knowledge and in-house facilities to deliver a cost-effective solution that’s right for your business.       Check out www.intelesens.com for more information

Factors to Consider when using an AED

Factors to Consider when using an AED


When treating a victim that has gone into cardiac arrest there are a few considerations to be made when it comes to using an AED (automated external defibrillator).

These considerations need to be made on

  • Paediatric patients
  • Wet or sweaty patients
  • Patients with a hairy chest
  • Patients with a medication patch
  • Patients with a pacemaker or implantable defibrillator


If In doubt, start performing chest compressions and have someone contact emergency medical services via phone before you deliver an electric shock.  If there are obvious signs of a cardiac arrest, acting fast will increase the patient’s chance of survival—no matter what other factors are present.


Treating a Paediatric Patient


Cardiac arrest in children is rare but still a possibility. Child patients require a reduced electrical shock if they are under eight years old or weigh less than 55 pounds. To cater to paediatric patients, some external defibrillators have a special paediatric setting, and others come with child electrode pads (either included with the device or sold separately).

For a child under age eight, adjusting an AED can be seen in example such as the below;

  • HeartSine Samaritan PAD 350P. Unplug the adult electrode Pad-Pak and plug in the child electrode pads (sold separately). Follow the audio prompts and press the shock button when directed.


If no child pads are available, and your device doesn’t have a child setting, you can use standard adult pads. However, the chest placement is different for paediatric patients. One pad should be placed in the centre of the chest, and the other in the centre of the back. Use this placement for paediatric patients, whether you use adult or child pads.

See image below for reference;

For an infant under 12 months, a manual defibrillator is more appropriate than an AED (automated defibrillator) —especially if no paediatric pads are available. However, it’s much better to use a portable defibrillator (with paediatric or adult pads) than to do nothing at all.

Treating a Sweaty or Water-Submerged Patient


Special considerations when using an AED with a patient also apply when the patient is wet or damp from sweat. Because water is an excellent conductor of electricity, the power of the shock would be dispersed across the patient’s body and be less effective where it’s needed the most.

When treating a victim of cardiac arrest who is wet or damp, remove them from the water (if they are immersed) and take them to a dry place. Dry off their chest area as much as possible and apply the electrode pads. There is no need to completely dry the patient from head to toe as time is of the essence, focus only on completely drying the chest area, specifically the area between the pads.

The most important factor is that the victim’s chest be dry so that the shock is delivered straight to the heart. If the victim is in a puddle or lying on a wet area of the floor but their chest is dry, simply move them away from the water and use the defibrillator as normal.


Treating a Patient with a Hairy Chest


When a cardiac arrest victim has excessive chest hair, it may be difficult for the electrode pad to analyse their heart rhythm and deliver an appropriately timed shock. This is because the hair would lift the pad up and off the patient’s chest, preventing full contact with the skin. The hair would also make it more difficult for the gel on the electrode pad to adhere to the skin.

There are three main solutions to the issue of chest hair, as recommended by the American Heart Association’s Basic Life Support Manual:  BLS Provider Manual eBook (heart.org)

  1. Shave the hair off the area where the patch will be applied. It is sensible to keep a disposable razor stored with every AED specifically for this purpose. Most first-aid kids and first-responder kits should include at least one razor.
  2. If you don’t have a razor and the device continues to prompt you with “check pads,” push down hard on the electrode pads to increase conductivity. Then remove your hands when instructed to “stand clear.”
  3. If the machine still doesn’t respond, you can strip the pad quickly off the patient’s chest to remove some of the hair. Then apply a new set of pads. Only do this if you have extra pads on hand.


Treating a Patient with a Transdermal Medication Patch


Transdermal medication patches have been used since the 1970’s to deliver active medication, such as a hormone or nicotine, at a gradual rate through the skin. In the case of a cardiac arrest, medication patches present a burn hazard when using an external automated defibrillator if the shock is delivered over the patch.

Before applying an AED, remove the medication patch and wipe any sticky residue off the patient’s skin. It’s a good idea to wear gloves when removing the patch so that the medication is not absorbed through your skin.


Treating a Patient with a Pacemaker or Implantable Defibrillator


Pacemakers and implantable defibrillators make up the last category of special considerations when using an AED. If you place an AED directly over a pacemaker or defibrillator, the device may block the delivery of the shock. Instead, place the electrode pad a few inches lower or try an anterior-posterior (front-and-back) pad placement instead.

You can usually tell if a cardiac arrest victim has an implanted pacemaker or defibrillator because they will have a scar on either side of their upper chest or abdomen with a hard lump the size of a deck of playing cards or smaller. Most often this will be near the heart, on the left side of the chest, in which case it will not interfere with the standard pad placements. If they have suffered a sudden cardiac arrest, it’s almost certain that the device has stopped working. Don’t worry about damaging the device as this can be replaced.


With a few simple adjustments, you can use an automated external defibrillator on the patients mentioned above, as you would on any other. Make sure your AED is equipped with paediatric pads, a razor, and a pair of gloves and you should be ready for anything.


Special Considerations When Using an AED Device (aedleader.com)